Monday, December 30, 2019
Occupational Therapy can promote, health, safety and productivity for older workers in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s increasingly aging workforce. The average life expectancy has increased from 70.8 years in 1970 to 77.2 years in 2001. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, 63 million Americans are above the age of 65. Perry, PE, CPE, L. Designing the Workplace for the Aging Workforce, How to use Ergonomics to Improve the Workplace Design. http://184.108.40.206/NR/rdonlyres/AEFC0FF5-EE0B-4765-B5D4-F640D99E1412/0/Designingtheworkplacefortheagingworkforce.pdf.) Ten million adults over the age of 65 are still working, and that number is expected to double over the next ten years due to extended careers, second careers and longer life expectancy. People above retirement age continue to work for social, financial and healthcare benefits. One of the industries affected the most by this aging workforce is the manufacturing industry. The manufacturing industry has one of the highest injury and illn ess rates across all sectors and poses more of a risk to aging workers. As we age we change in several different ways. It has been documented that people over 65; have a 25-30 percent decrease in strength and lose 18-20 percent of their flexibility. Balance is also an issue, with one third of people over 65 taking a serious fall each year. Sight, reaction time and speed as well as motor skills deteriorate. One third of people between the ages of 65 and 74 have issues with hearing. Additionally, extremeShow MoreRelatedThe Treasure Trove Of The Aging Workforce Essay953 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Treasure Trove of the Aging Workforce Tajh T. Stegall Southern New Hampshire University Human Behavior in Organization 19 February 2015 Abstract: Ã¢â¬Å"The Treasure Trove of the Aging WorkforceÃ¢â¬ is simply stating how individuals in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce are working past the previous established retirement age of 70. Most of the older individuals are in a fast-growing segment of older workers, averaging over the age of 55. Treasure Trove of the Aging Workforce explains how these individuals areRead MoreEssay MBA Assignement 2812 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCase Incident 2: Ã¢â¬Å"The Treasure Trove of the Aging Workforce.Ã¢â¬ Introduction As a healthcare provider I deal with aging population on daily basis. Although healthcare advances have affectively increased age of survival, it does not change the lifestyles and employment challenges in the elderly. Given the economic downturn in the last decade, significant amount of population had to change their retirement goals or had to return to workforce to maintain their lifestyles. As an employerRead MoreNonfatal Eccupational Injus922 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe cases. These claims are further supported by both the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the BLS which report, injuries to the aging come with higher costs, slower return to work, and longer durations of workplace absences due to injuries or illness. Some gender disparities also exist. According to the BLS, men, who make up 52 percent of the older workforce, account for 55 percent of the injuries. Older men are also more likely to stay away from work longer than women, at 14 days versusRead MoreHow Human Resource Planning Is Different From Manpower Planning? Essay1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesachieve its goals. This is a process, which continuously runs in an organization. It adapts the change, which means that it keeps on changing its strategies so as to meet the uncertain conditions in an organization. Its main aim is maintain quality of workforce; therefore it requires skilled and experienced employees. Aim of Human Resource Planning: - Ã¢â¬ ¢ Identify Business Strategies, needs and conduct job analysis Ã¢â¬ ¢ To avoid manpower shortages or surpluses. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To enhance and develop the skills of the employeesRead MoreDesire to Retire: Increasing Age Diversity in the Workplace1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDesire to Retire: Increasing Age Diversity in the Workplace As a result of demographic changes in many industrialized countries, organizations are experiencing increased age diversity (Hertel, Van der Heijden, de Lange, Deller, 2013a). In the US, this is due to the aging baby boom generation (Schram, 2006), and organizations are faced with adjusting to the changing demographic. By contrast, in Europe and China the labor force is shrinking (Cheung Wu, 2013; Schermuly, Deller, Busch, 2014)Read MoreNursing Shortage And Its Effects On Health Care Policy877 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprojected increased of registered nurse employments by year 2018 is estimated to grow more than five hundred thousands of new registered nurses positions and about an increase in size in workforce by 22 percent (Carol Huston, 2014, p. 71). Nursing shortage arises when organizations want more nursing personnel in the workforce at the current market than they can get. Supply and demands aspects of increasing numbers of populations are driving the shortage as well. The d emands means the amounts of high qualityRead MoreWhy Do Employers Operate Disability Management Programs1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1) Employers operate disability management programs because it gives them a structured way to manage workplace costs associated with workplace illness and injury. Costs can be controlled through maintaining skilled workers and limiting absences to maintain a productive workforce. The program is also thought to Ã¢â¬Å"prevent workplace injury and illness and to accommodate workers in a manner that facilitates early and safe return to work.Ã¢â¬ (Management of Occupational Health and Safety, 2011, 329) I alsoRead MoreThe Future of Human Resource Management1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespeople they work with. Defining Humane Resource requirements is not an easy assignment, given the dynamic rate of change in the workplace. Globalization, changing technologies, diversity and changing workforce composition is challenging managers to utilize their employees more effectively to gain competitive advantage. Given these speeding changes occurring in today s workplace, any Humane Resource professional wishing to make a strategic contribution must look closer to the future and think ahead moreRead MoreAge-Related Diversity Issues at the Workplace1683 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Workplace Diversity Issues Age-Related Introduction Study #1 Older people are not retiring as the traditional age of 65 as they once did. According to a research paper published by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) between 1977 and 2007, the number of employed workers over the age of 65 Ã¢â¬ ¦increased 101 percent (BLS). For men 65 or older still at work, the increase (between 1977 and 2007) reflects a 75% rise; as for women, the number of those 65 and older rose by an impressives147 percentRead MoreThe Aging Workforce And Its Impact On Organizations1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Aging Workforce and Its Impact on Organizations Abstract There are approximately 76 million baby boomers in the United States. These are the people that were born between 1946 and 1964. Baby boomers make up one-third of the workforce in the United States. Unfortunately, there are not enough younger workers to replace the older workers. Labor shortages in key industries will force a radical rethinking of recruitment, retention, flexible work schedules and retirement. About 76 million baby boomers
Sunday, December 22, 2019
A personÃ¢â¬â¢s house can show you a lot about that person. In my own room you would probably find that I have a big appreciation for books, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t you wonder what the inventor and third presidentÃ¢â¬â¢s house showed you what he was like? Thomas Jefferson was a very important man; however, there are many more sides to him than you think. Initially, the Northeast Portico displays Thomas JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s deep appreciation for Architecture. Jefferson himself got the idea for this wall from James GibbÃ¢â¬â¢s Book of Architecture. He used the book and designed a wall based on one of his designs. The original blueprint was supposed to be used for an octagonal structure, and Jefferson used it for just one wall. This shows that Jefferson cares for architectureÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Next, his Mandan Buffalo Robe also shows his understanding of history and the arts. Most painted robes were used as traditional clothing and articles of trade for Native Americans. Some of these robes are painted with a scene usually a scene that the person receiving the robe fought in. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent a package to Thomas Jefferson filled with seven buffalo robes one that had a painted scene. Putting a piece from a famous expedition shows that he is aware that he must preserve a piece of history so thatÃ¢â¬â¢s other can look back at this piece of history. Thomas Jefferson understands the History and Arts very much, so his Entry Hall reflects this part of him. JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s love of people and games are evident in the parlor room. The Parlor Room was filled with many paintings of important figures and friends of JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s. Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson Randolph are just some of the many paintings included in the parlor. He had used this room as a place to invite friends and colleagues to come over and play games and have fun. Jefferson included many chairs, in this room to have lots of people over and allow them to sit down whenever they would like too. The parlor room was often a place for family weddings, dances, and christenings. A wedding is a cheerful ceremony between two families joining together. Weddings have families that bring cheer and happiness. An anti-social person wouldShow MoreRelatedEssay on Thomas JeffersonÃ ´s Monticello735 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThomas JeffersonÃ ´s Monticello Thomas Jefferson once said that Architecture is my delight, and putting up and pulling down, one of my favorite amusements. He spent much of his life putting up and pulling down, most notably during the forty-year construction of the Monticello. Influenced by his readings of ancient and modern architectural writings, Jefferson gleaned the best from both his readings and from his observations in Europe, creating his own personal style of architecture, a mixRead MoreWho Is Thomas Jefferson?993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Who is Thomas Jefferson? Matthew Backlin United States History 1 A CP October 18, 2015 Who was Thomas Jefferson? Most people just think of him as the man who wrote the Declaration of Independence or just one of our many presidents. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not the case. Jefferson was more than that, He was a very intelligent man and a loving father and grandfather. Thomas Jefferson was also an inventor and one of the most significant men in the history of makingRead MoreMoney Can Be Seen As A Root Of Evil1054 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesof pure corruption. Thomas Jefferson remains an icon in American history, despite the travesties he attributed to involving slavery. Jefferson once preached equality until he got a taste of the lavish life. Upon the inheritance of slaves, Jefferson receives a first-hand experience of the luxury of being a slave owner. Jefferson utilizes slaves to achieve economic success without regard to the suffering accompanied with the gruesome work. With his multitude of slaves Jefferson gains riches throughRead MoreEssay Thomas Jefferson1012 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 in Albermarle County, Virginia. He was born in a simple four-room house in Shadwell, Virginia, what is now Monticello. His father, Peter Jefferson, was a planter who was a bright, brave, and strong man. His mother was a very gentle lady. She was boring under one of the most distinguished families in the area. His family had prospered since the first Jefferson arrived in America from Whales in 1612. Soon after JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s birth, the French and British beganRead MoreAditi Patel. Hist 1301. Prof Endsely. April 29, 2017. Thomas1046 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAditi Patel HIST 1301 Prof Endsely April 29, 2017 Thomas Jefferson In Shadwell, Virginia, Thomas Jefferson was visualized on April 13, 1743. He was not only the third president (1801-09) of the United States of America. He was also an originator of the U.S. Assertion of Independence; the country s first secretary of state (1789-94) and second VP (1797-1801). Jefferson passed on to the great beyond in bed at Monticello (located near Charlottesville, Virginia) on July 4, 1826. On April 13, 1743, theRead More thomas jefferson Essay912 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Thomas Jefferson was Born on April 13, 1743,on a farm called Shadwell, what is now called Monticello, in the county of Albermarle, Virginia. Jefferson was the third child in the family and grew up with six sisters and one brother. At the age of five, Jefferson was placed by his father, Peter Jefferson, at an quot;English school, for four years, where he developed an interest in botany, geology, cartography, and North American explorationquot;. After English school, was transferred to a Latin schoolR ead MoreEssay on Thomas Jefferson: A Controversial Man1785 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages Most people only know Thomas Jefferson as the third President of the United States but he was much more than that. Thomas Jefferson was a very controversial man. From his work as a Founding Father to the mysteries of his personal life, Americans continue to find him to be very intriguing. He challenged the way the government was run previously by the first two presidents and became an advocate for the people. This paper talks about JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s role as a leader during the creation of theRead MoreEssay on Thomas Jefferson1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThomas Jefferson He is best remembered as a great president and as the author of the Declaration of Independence. He also won lasting fame as a diplomat, a political thinker, and a founder of the Democratic Party. Jeffersons interests and talents covered an amazing range. He became one of the leading American architects of his time and designed the Virginia Capitol, the University of Virginia, and his own home, Monticello. He greatly appreciated art and music and tried to encourage theirRead MoreThe House - Original Writing940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDuring the two years I lived in Charlottesville, Virginia, I passed by Monticello everyday on my way from home to school; I finally went up there to visit right before I left the town. Weaving through the giant plantation around it, the shuttle took us from the foot of the mountain to the hilltop, where the house rested. The house was relatively small compared to the size of the field surrounding it. Through several preservation and minor renovation, th e floor we stepped on was still the originalRead More Monticello: JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream Essay2115 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Monticello: JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream Ã¢â¬Å"MonticelloÃ¢â¬ , the Italian word for little mountain is the appropriate wording for Thomas JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s dream home. He picked out the site for such a fabled home as a young boy. At eight hundred and sixty-five feet tall, Jefferson truly does have his little mountain on which to live. Thomas Jefferson built his chalet in an abnormal spot in accordance with the times. Most if not all the people in the seventeen hundreds built their homes in the low lands or near
Saturday, December 14, 2019
Introduction Long ago people viewed Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ as the inevitability of chance which occurred beyond the control of humans. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ has turned into riches, as risky ventures have become the norm in the business world. Ã¢â¬Å"RiskÃ¢â¬ therefore applies to decisions that can have a bad or good outcome. We will write a custom essay sample on Types of Risk or any similar topic only for you Order Now The different types of Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ can include financial, legal, ethical, information technology, or even human resource since it can exist everywhere and at any time in our lives. When we eat, we encounter the risk of food poisoning, to cross the road we run the risk of being hit by a passing motor car or even when we drive, we can increase the risk of an accident. If no risk is done then, no breakthrough can be expected. Whether it is in your career, financially, or in your business. Once you fail to take a risk then you will suffer the consequences of making significant gains, which means that you run the risk of a possible loss. What is Risk? According to Mortimer (2005 p. 5) Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ is any uncertainty about a future event which might threaten an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to accomplish its mission. Which means that it can be the chance of something happening that will have a negative impact on an organization. It is the possibility of suffering a loss that is loss of quality income, loss of profit, loss of success or even loss of life. It means therefore that change involves Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ , but once the set program has been attained or ha s achieved total success Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ vanishes. It is therefore of great importance that the management of risk be well managed. Ã¢â¬Å"Risk managementÃ¢â¬ was engineered into dealing with the possibility that some future event might cause harm. It includes strategies and techniques for recognizing and confronting treats of risk and provided an environment for proactive decision making for the proactive decision making, for the purpose of: * Ã¢â¬Å"What can go wrongÃ¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"What will we doÃ¢â¬ * Ã¢â¬Å"How will or can it be resolvedÃ¢â¬ . Success in business to a certain degree requires owners or managers to take Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ . Most successful businesses are managed by people who know when or how to push forward and when or how to hold back, when to sell and when to stand firm. According to Yusof (2007) p. 1. Ã¢â¬Å"Risk is an undeniable reality of doing business today, whether globally or locally. Although failure is in a way linked to Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ , the successful business person should not fear Ã¢â¬Å"riskÃ¢â¬ but strives to understand it, to manage it, or even try to take advantage of it. In that way the business person would be able to calculate the risk before taking it. Unfortunately the world of business now is exposed to more risk, such as high interest rate, inflation, recession, high exchange rates, even political and cultural risk to name a few. Therefore it takes a great deal of expertise to effectively manage risk in business. Financial Risk Financial Risk is associated with the use of debt financing by firms or companies, since the presence of debt involves legal and mandatory obligations to make specified payments at specified time period. There is a risk that the earnings of the firm may not be sufficient to meet these obligations towards the creditors. In case of the shareholders, the financial risks occur because it is not only the mandatory nature of debt obligations but also the property of Ã¢â¬Ëprior paymentsÃ¢â¬â¢ of these obligations. In short, the use of debt by the firm causes variability of return for both creditors and shareholders. Financial risk is usually measured by the debt/equity ratio of the firm: the higher the ratio, the greater the variability of the return and the higher the financial risk. Financial risk also involves liquidity risk, maturity risk, interest rate risk and inflation risk. Liquidity refers to situations wherein it may not be possible to dispose or sell the assets or it maybe possible to sell only at great inconvenience of cost in terms of money and time. The greater the uncertainty about true elements, price concession, and transaction cost; the greater the liquidity risk. Liquidity Risk has a different connotation from the point of view of banks and financial institutions. In this context liquidity risk refers to their inability to meet the liability towards depositors when they want to withdraw their deposits. Maturity risks arise when the term of maturity of the security happens to be longer. Since foreseeing, forecasting and envisioning the environment, conditions and situations become more and more difficult as we go more and more into the future. The longer term investment involves risk, the longer the term of maturity the greater the risk. Interest Rates Risks are the variability in the returns on security due to changes in the level of the market interest rates, or it is the loss of principal of a fixed term security due to an increase in the general level of interest rates. When interest rates raise the value or market price of the security drops or vice versa. The degree of interest rate is directly related to the length of time to maturity of the security. If the term to maturity is long then the market value of the security may fluctuate widely. Inflation Risk is the risk that the real return on security may be less than the nominal return. In case of fixed income security, since payments in term foreign dollars are fixed. The value of the payments in real term declines as the level of commodity prices increases. Inflation risk is also known as purchasing power risk as there is always a chance that the purchasing power of invested money will decline, or that the real return will decline due to inflation. Legal Risk Most legal risk arise from the possibility that a counterparty is not legally permitted or able to enter into a transaction. Legal risk is the risk that legal actions will impair the value of investment or it may be a risk from uncertainty due to legal actions or uncertainty in the applicability or interpretation of contracts, laws or regulations. This can cause a particular problem for companies who choose to transact business with other overseas businesses. Not only are they exposed to uncertainty relating to the laws of multiple jurisdictions, but they also face uncertainty as to which jurisdiction will have authority over any particular legal issue. This risk can be reduced by the company hiring experience corporate lawyers. Ethical Risk Ethical risks concern the impact that the business has on shareholders at the local, national and global levels. In some cases these risks can influence the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s intangible assets such as the human capital, the business reputation and its clientele. Some of the factors impinging ethical risks are: * The establishment of codes of conduct * Adherence to the code * Programme to improve performance * Good internal communication * Clearly defined mechanisms to encourage employees to respect possible violation. As the evolution of new devices in the field of information technology there is also an increased tendency for hackers to try to infiltrate companyÃ¢â¬â¢s network. The company can also face risk associated with theft or release of personal data such as employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ social security numbers and bank account numbers. A part of this risk can be reduced by installing firewall software and additional access codes. Human Resource Risk Another type of risk is human resource, this is most important within the company as companies demand skilled labours to work with the job market. Companies suffer or run the risk of hiring workers who are paid as qualified and skilled workers, when they are not. Other risks would include labour fluctuation and also a rise in the labour cost, which may result in strikes and lock-outs by trade unions and negligence. Companies can reduce the risk by providing incentives to the workers and also offer educational grants for workers to upgrade their careers. Political Risk Finally, the political risk can be describes as the type of risk has to do with the political decision making process within the environment for business. The lack of transparency and accountability in a political system whereby decisions which impact businesses can change dramatically due to political or social instability. The immediate resignation of the Prime Minister of Jamaica- Hon. Bruce Golding is an ideal example of political risk. Safety Risk When running a small company, every move a business owner or employee makes is a source of risk. In any case where high risk is involved, itÃ¢â¬â¢s prudent to consult a lawyer or other professional who can advise you on how to protect your business. If an owner runs a factory or other job site that requires workers to use machinery, equipment or vehicles in the course of business, workplace safety is a matter of utmost importance and a key source of risk. For this reason, they must follow guidelines set by Safety Health Administration. In addition to workplace safety concerns involving physical injury, health issues also pose a risk to some businesses, particularly medical offices and hospitals. Employees must observe strict rule and regulation to protect the public and themselves from health-related threats. Conflicts between employees are also a main source of risk for small businesses that employ workers. Risks include claims of discrimination (including sex, race, age and discrimination based on disabilities) and harassment from other employees. These issues could lead to expensive lawsuits for the business. The company must comply with rules set by government agencies like the Ministry of Labour and ensure that it follows proper procedures in all instances and with any situation involving these issues. Sources of Risk For companies that serve certain types of goods to the public, like food and skincare products, product quality is a major concern and a high source of business risk. Some products have the potential of harming the consumer if the company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t take proper steps to meet quality standards. Negligence involving the products of these items could lead to legal issues and damage the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation Bibliography Al, M. A. (2004). Hanbook of Management 3rd Edition. London : Pearson Education . Bhole, L. (2004). Financial Institutions and Markets 4th Edition. New Delhi, India : Tata McCraw Hill. Mortimer, D. , S. Mortimer (2005) Quality and Risk Management. Cambridge University Press, London, England Yusof, Y. (2007). Managing Financial Risk. United Kingdom: Author House . How to cite Types of Risk, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Write an essay on restaurant ratings for various locations in the United States. Answer: The report discusses about the Zagats publishes restaurant ratings for various locations in the United States. The file Restaurants contains the Zagat rating for food, dcor, service and the cost per person for a sample of 100 restaurants located in New York City and in a suburb of New York. The analysis on the data sets is done to determine the summated ratings and the costs of restaurant meals in the New York City and its surrounded areas. The report briefly explains the restaurant industry, its cost structure, its relationship with customers and their satisfactions, the quality of meals provided and moreover the correlation between costs of restaurant meal and services with the summated restaurant ratings. The assignment is done through simple linear regression for determining the correlation among the chosen variables. The New York City is full of these types of restaurants. Due to the citys huge diversity and spread, the restaurants are one of the biggest industries in that parti cular region. As there is diversified population staying and wandering, many tastes and types of restaurant meals are available in the NYC. Therefore, this report will broadly show with the data analysis that how the summated ratings of those restaurants are important in relation with the restaurant cost of meal. Data analysis and interpretation: Summated ratings and Costs of Restaurant Meals Zagats publishes restaurant ratings for various locations in the United States. The file Restaurants contains the Zagat rating for food, dcor, service and the cost per person for a sample of 100 restaurants located in New York City and in a suburb of New York. On the given data, a quantitative data analysis is done by simple linear regression taking the two variables as summated ratings and the cost of meals in the restaurants. Regression is the technique that interprets the relationship between two or more variables (Montgomery, Douglas, Elizabeth Peck, and Geoffrey 2015). Here the simple linear regression technique is applied to interpret the relationship between the two variables.Firstly, to show the relationship between the summated rating and cost of meals in the restaurant, the scatter plot is done by taking the dependent variable to be the summated ratings and independent variable being the cost of meals. Table 1: Plate gap and tear: Plate Gap Tear 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.80 0.45 1.80 0.85 0.00 0.35 0.00 0.30 0.00 0.70 0.00 1.90 0.00 0.25 -1.80 0.10 -1.80 0.15 3.00 3.90 -1.80 0.00 0.00 0.55 -3.00 0.00 -1.80 0.05 1.80 0.40 1.80 4.30 0.00 0.00 The above scatter plot shows a linear and positive trend line which is upward sloping. This means the relationship between the two variables is positive and increasing i.e. the high the value of number of plates, the high will be the rating in terms of the reviews. The rise in plates means rise in production and rise in revenue by the restaurant too. Therefore, this will cause higher ratings. The regression output is found through simple linear regression analysis that is given below: Table 2: Simple Linear Regression Output: SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.617347283 (correlation coefficient - strenght and direction of relationship (exel does not give us the sign) - from scatterplot we know it is positive R Square 0.381117667 (coefficient of determination) Adjusted R Square 0.344712824 Standard Error 1.024120857 Observations 19 ( ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 1 10.98 10.98 10.46887269 0.004860746 Residual 17 17.83 1.048823529 Total 18 28.81 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% Intercept (b0) 0.75 0.234949438 3.192176183 0.00533663 0.254300016 1.2457 0.2543 1.2457 Plate Gap (b1) 0.5 0.154532576 3.235563736 0.004860746 0.173964763 0.826035 0.173965 0.826035 Now, it is assumed and shown that the two variables are having a linear cost relationship. Therefore, the values of the coefficients b0 and b1 are- 0.75 and 0.5 respectively. According to the question when plate gap (x) increases by 1 unit, the predicted value of tear rating (y) increases by 0.5 units. Therefore, b0 and b1 have relationship which is greater than zero i.e. positive. A rise in plate gap of 1 unit will cause the tear rating increase of 0.5 units. At the same time, the positive intercept means that the curve starts from a positive value with positive slope. Predicted Y = 0.75 + 0.5x Predicted Tear rating = 0.75 + 0.5 (plate gap) When plate gap is 0, y = mx + c -- 0.75 + 0.5(0) = 0.75 It means that when plate gap (x) is zero, it means we are looking at the intercept, b0. Predicted tear rating = 0.75 + 0.5 (0) = 0.75 Therefore, the estimated simple linear regression equation is given by: Predicted Y = 0.75 + 0.5x Now, when the rating is 50, the predicted value of cost per plate is given by: 50= 0.75 + 0.5 (cost per plate) 50-0.75= 0.5x 5 x = 49.25 x= 49.25/0.5 x= 98.50 Here the residual analysis is done with the data on size of the restaurant and the value of rent. The data is given in the table below: Size Rent 850 950 1450 1600 1085 1200 1232 1500 718 950 1485 1700 1136 1650 726 935 700 875 956 1150 1100 1400 1285 1650 1985 2300 1369 1800 1175 1400 1225 1450 1245 1100 1259 1700 1150 1200 896 1150 1361 1600 1040 1650 755 1200 1000 800 1200 1750 Table 3: Size and rent data on restaurants: The above data shows a linear relationship with a positive trend. This means the size effect has a rising trend with the rent of a restaurant. Positive relationship indicates an increasing trend which means as size of a restaurant rises, the value of rent also rises. This has direct relationship with cost as rent is the fixed cost included in the total cost factor. Therefore, as size of the restaurant increases, the rent increases thereby increasing the total cost. Thus, the ratings will be affected with this cost value. If the cost is not overcome with the revenue and if the number of plates served is not high, the ratings will fall. This means rise in cost may cause fall in the total profit as well as the summated ratings regarding the restaurant meals. The summary output of regression analysis is given as below: Table 4: Summary output of regression between size of the restaurant and rent SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.850060796 R Square 0.722603356 Adjusted R Square 0.710542633 Standard Error 194.5953946 Observations 25 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 1 2268777 2268777 59.91376 7.52E-08 Residual 23 870949.5 37867.37 Total 24 3139726 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% Intercept (b0) 177.1208202 161.0043 1.1001 0.28267 -155.942 510.1835 -155.942 510.1835 Size (b1) 1.065143906 0.137608 7.740398 7.52E-08 0.780479 1.349809 0.780479 1.349809 The above output indicates a predicted value for the size and rent equation, which is: From output, can see that b0= 177.12, andb1= 1.0651(x) Predicted rent = 117.12 + 1.0651 (Size) When the size of the apartment increases by 1 square feet, the predicted rent increases by $1.065 Y = mx + c -- Y = 177.1208 + 1.0651 (1000) = $1242.12 Predicted rent = 177.12 + 1.0651 (1000) = $1242.12 The histogram is formed regarding the values: Bin range Frequency Cumulative % 500 0 0.00% 1000 13 26.00% 1500 26 78.00% 2000 10 98.00% More 1 100.00% The cumulative frequency shows a rising manner. This rising frequency is shown in the linear trend equation. Positive relationship indicates an increasing trend which means as size of a restaurant rises, the value of rent also rises. This has direct relationship with cost as rent is the fixed cost included in the total cost factor (Cameron, Colin and Trivedi 2013). Therefore, as size of the restaurant increases, the rent increases thereby increasing the total cost. Thus, the ratings will be affected with this cost value. If the cost is not overcome with the revenue and if the number of plates served is not high, the ratings will fall. This means rise in cost may cause fall in the total profit as well as the summated ratings regarding the restaurant meals. The data is shown through the histogram presentation above. The above diagram is the representation of asking rest with the predicted rent of the restaurant. The values show rising manner in the data above. Data interpretation Now, taking all the outputs, summarized results can be found from the regression analysis. The regression results for size effects with the rent are given below: Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.850060796 R Square 0.722603356 Adjusted R Square 0.710542633 Standard Error 194.5953946 Observations 25 The above value of multiple R is 0.850060796, near to 1. Generally, the value of correlation coefficient i.e. R lies between -1 to 1. At the same time, the value of R square is 0.722603356. However, the value of R in this case is high, near to 1, meaning that there is a high correlation between the results for size effects with the rent (Chatterjee, Samprit and Hadi 2015). This has direct relationship with cost as rent is the fixed cost included in the total cost factor. Therefore, as size of the restaurant increases, the rent increases thereby increasing the total cost. Thus, the ratings will be affected with this cost value. If the cost is not overcome with the revenue and if the number of plates served is not high, the ratings will fall. This means rise in cost may cause fall in the total profit as well as the summated ratings regarding the restaurant meals. ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 1 2268776.545 2268777 59.91376 7.52E-08 Residual 23 870949.4547 37867.37 Total 24 3139726 In the ANOVA output, the value of F statistic is also significant. Therefore, the variances are compared between the two variables i.e. size of the restaurant and rent, has a low variability. This also indicates a direct relation between them. Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Lower 95.0% Upper 95.0% Intercept (b0) 177.1208202 161.0042766 1.1001 0.28267 -155.942 510.1835 -155.942 510.1835 Size (b1) 1.065143906 0.137608412 7.740398 7.52E-08 0.780479 1.349809 0.780479 1.349809 The values of intercept are signified by the above results. The value of standard error is high. The t statistic is higher than 1, meaning a highly significant relationship between the variables (Draper, Norman and Harry Smith 2014). The p-value is low. The low value of p signifies the model to be more significant. Therefore, the overall data structure indicates a good fitted model on which the cost should be reduced in order to make profit in the restaurants as size of the restaurant directly affects the rent and thereby the fixed cost. Conclusion: The report has dealt with the Zagats publishes restaurant ratings for various locations in the United States. The file Restaurants contains the Zagat rating for food, dcor, service and the cost per person for a sample of 100 restaurants located in New York City and in a suburb of New York. The analysis on the data sets is done to determine the summated ratings and the costs of restaurant meals in the New York City and its surrounded areas. All the above data has indicated a positive relationship with the summated ratings in terms of cost of the restaurant. To eradicate or reduce the cost, the size factor should be taken into account, as the rise in size causes a rise in the cost. Moreover, the relationship between the plates served and the ratings are calculated which gives a clear picture that as there is more plates served, the ratings are high. As there is diversified population staying and wandering, many tastes and types of restaurant meals are available in the NYC. Therefore, t his report shows broadly with the data analysis that how the summated ratings of those restaurants are important in relation with the restaurant cost of meal. References: Cameron, A. Colin, and Pravin K. Trivedi.Regression analysis of count data. Vol. 53. Cambridge university press, 2013. Chatterjee, Samprit, and Ali S. Hadi.Regression analysis by example. John Wiley Sons, 2015. Draper, Norman R., and Harry Smith.Applied regression analysis. John Wiley Sons, 2014. Montgomery, Douglas C., Elizabeth A. Peck, and G. Geoffrey Vining.Introduction to linear regression analysis. John Wiley Sons, 2015.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Switching Network In Telecommunications SWITCHING NETWORK IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS (AT&T 5ESS SWITCH) The direction of this paper is to describe a telecommunications switch and show its purpose and multitasking abilities. This paper will use the AT&T 5ESS Switch to give a real world example of a top rated telecommunications switch. The end result will be an understanding of how a switch works and what it can do. Also, it will show why the AT&T 5ESS Switch is #1 in today's telecommunication world. SWITCHING In today's world a person should be able to pick up his phone and dial to almost anywhere in the world. Without knowing anything about switching, one would think that there phone would have to have a separate line to everyone other phone in the world. This would be quite a lot of lines into just one phone and know that this is an impossible scenario. This is why the switched network was developed. A switched network brings each subscriber line into a centralized switching system, where connections are made for each call. The earliest telephone switches were hand-operated - that is, they required a human operator to make connections by plugging circuits into a switchboard. When the customer rang the central office, the operator scanned the switchboard and connected the caller by plugging into the requested line. The invention of the mechanical switch came about in the late 1880. Now, the mechanical switch replaced the human operator, who handled the physical connections. These early switching systems were based on the analog technology that was state-of-the-art electronics at the time. By the mid 1970's digital technologies were being introduced into the core of the public switched network. Digital switches fully capitalized on the strength of the computer revolution by routing both voice and data through the switch in the form of 0/1 binary coded information, which can be moved through the switch in a very short period of time. A single digital switch typically serves anywhere from under 1000 to over 100,000 subscribers. The typical digital switch has four components: the central processor, the switch matrix, a range of peripherals, and input/output controllers. Central Processor - The central processor controls call processing activities. Examples of some activities are assigning time slots and administering special calling features such as call forwarding. The central processor is also responsible for directing system-control functions, system maintenance, and the loading and downloading of software. The central processor is usually duplicated within a switch to ensure reliability. If the hot processor should develop a problem while a call is being processed, the system automatically shifts to the standby processor - without the caller noticing any interruption of service Switch Matrix - This is also referred to as the network. It handles the actual connection of calls to their destinations. Peripherals - These convert incoming voice and data signals into the digital format used by the switch and perform some low-level call processing tasks. There are usually a range of peripheral modules to interface the range of lines and trunks coming in from the network. Input/Output Controller - This system provides access to the switch for billing, maintenance, loading of software, and routine operations and administration. The primary function of a switch is Picture - lucent.com/netsys/5ESS/family to establish connections between telephones and data equipment for the transmission of voice or data. When a local call is placed, a digital switch performs multiple call processing functions. These functions are: ? Call Detection - Detection that the telephone receiver is off the hook. ? Dial Tone Provided - Provides dial tone to the caller. ? Digit Collection - Collects the dialed digits. ? Digit Translation - Translates dialed digits into a call number. ? Call Routing - Routes the call to its destination. ? Call Connection - Connects parties. ? Audible Ringing/Ringback - Signaling the called party by audible ringing, and the calling party by ringback. ? Call Termination - Disconnecting and terminating the call when a party hangs up. How does a switch accomplish all these functions? The answer is Software. The switch is a large scale, real time software based system. The switch itself, works through commands located in the software applications used. Software is the guiding command that makes the switch execute its processes. Now that the function and purpose of the telecommunications switch
Monday, November 25, 2019
Technical writing in the corporate environment Free Online Research Papers Technical writing is an essential part of the corporate world, because technology in present day is far to complicated for the average individual. That is were the technical writer is a valuable asset, the skill set they have enables the consumer to use, and understand the technology of the product. Technical writing is supposed to be clear and concise, and straight to the point so that the reader has a clear understanding of the subject. Technical writing is used for user manuals, e-mails, memos, and other documents that are in the corporate world. The technical writer has the knowledge to turn technological specifications or company relations into understandable terminology for consumers and other colleagues. The purpose of technical writing is to take a subject that the average person has no idea about and change the terminology of that subject into something that the average person can understand. The technical writer must use a text that is easy to read, and readers do not like full paragraphs. There is a need to put graphics into the text, and break-up the text in other ways so that the reader does not lose interest. With out the skill set of a technical writer consumers would not be able to use a wide variety of products due to them being far too technical. If engineers were in charge of writing user manuals then they would use their technical lingo to explain how to use their product. Most average consumers would not be able to understand the engineerÃ¢â¬â¢s lingo, and this would cause consumers not to buy that product. A technical writer is the medium between the technical side of the corporate world and the consumers of the products that these companies sell. There would also be an interruption of communication in the corporate environment, because all communication must be straight and to the point. If there is any space for reader interpretation then the idea being conveyed could be taken the wrong way. Technology is the reason for the increase in the need for technical writers. With out technical writing the average consumer would not be able to use a wide variety of the products that are out there. User manuals are the way that the consumer is able to use modern technology. Technical writers change the technical lingo into something that the average consumer is able to understand. E-mail is a new technology along with the Internet where people need to use technical writing. The e-mails need to be short and to the point so that the receiver has a clear understanding of the information. However, e-mail might not be the best communication channel to use. If you are discussing a highly sensitive topic such as a pending merger, corporate take over, or layoffs, an e-mail message would be less secure than a letter sent in a sealed envelope. An aid to technical writing is audience recognition and this is where the writer establishes the audience knowledge level on the subject. Audiences can be broken down into four different groups, high tech audience, low tech audience, lay audience, and multiple audiences. A high tech audience has characteristics like extensive knowledge about the subject, shared level of understanding, and a need for little background information. A low tech audience is familiar with the technology, but their job responsibilities are peripheral to the subject matter. Lay audiences are Customers and clients who neither work for your company nor have any knowledge about your field of expertise are your lay audience members. Multiple audiences are a variety of all of the other different audiences rolled into one. Currently I am working in the landscaping business awaiting the end of the current college program that I am involved with. There are a few examples in this business where technical writing is very helpful. One is on the flyers that are handed out door to door. The message on them must be short and sweet, and it must be easy to read while getting the point across. The second is with the company brochures that we send to all of our customers that lines out all of the different treatment packages that we provide. There are also seasonal formal letters that our company sends out to all of our customers conveying that the company also provides other services. These are just a few examples of technical writing in the field that I am currently working in. In conclusion, technical writing is essential in all phases of the business world, and it is essential in order to give the best customer support available. The audience is a big key to understanding the lingo needed and the limit to detail. Once the audience is established then all that is left to choose is which method of conveying the information. There is always a time and place when it comes to the different mediums of communication. The key is to be as short and concise as possible when it comes to technical writing. Research Papers on Technical writing in the corporate environmentOpen Architechture a white paperBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfMind TravelMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductStandardized TestingAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaPETSTEL analysis of IndiaGenetic EngineeringAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in Capital
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Code of Ethics - Essay Example No one person can run this organization; therefore, it is imperative that we hire associates who are friendly, knowledgeable, and understand exactly what their respective roles in the company are. We hold our associates to the highest ethical standards. We expect our employees to behave in such a way, on campus and off, that no shame or degradation will be cast upon Whitehouse Cherry. Business ethics, to us, is defined as behavior that would directly result in the loss of customers, or invite lawsuits. For example, good business ethics dictate that all Whitehouse Cherry associates keep all customer information confidential. This information includes their names, and all identifying information like addresses, social security numbers, and phone numbers. Our customers are assured that their information will neither appear on a listserv, nor will it be sold to solicitation companies or surveyors. As well, credit card information should only be entered into our database at the time customers are making purchases, whether in person, or via Web. Associates may not write down credit card numbers, expiration dates, or security code information wholly, or in part. If an associate experiences any difficulty entering credit card information into the database, please see a senior associate to complete the transaction. This rule applies to all forms of payment received by Whi tehouse Cherry, including checks and Pay Pal accounts. Failure to adhere to any part of this rule will result in immediate dismissal of the associate, as per our agreement, written or implied, with the customer. Whitehouse Cherry associates must never discuss customers, except with pertinent personnel, and for business and problem resolution reasons only. Even then, non-pertinent personnel, and customers, must not be within hearing range of the associates in discussion. Associates who overhear non-pertinent conversations must a) keep the
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Relevance of Clinical Care in Nursing - Research Paper Example The basic idea is to get involved in community services without expecting any reward. The idea is to serve the community and people by taking care of their needs. Extracurricular activities include taking time out of the normal routine and devoting much of time in community services to learn ways of serving others in a compassionate manner. This also requires leadership attributes as dealing with people and serving them comes under little guidance and individuals needs to decide the mode of interaction, behaviour and mannerism often requiring a participating and compassionate approach. Moreover, students are guided by people having prior experience in serving the community and thus there is ample scope to learn from the leaders to become leaders. The most significant experience can be of realising the fact that serving others offers great happiness that is unmatchable. The very idea of bringing smiles over the faces of others can be considered as the most significant experience and a chievement. Achievements show dedication and reward but in my case; being compassionate and dedicated reaped all achievements along with offering rewards in the form of priceless smiles and gratitude. I personally believe that nothing can beat this particular experience in terms of contentment. At times, serving the community exposes oneself to learn and the elements of risk are quite negligible. From an early age, I was fascinated to see doctors and their approach while serving others by curing them and bringing smiles on their faces. This created a profound impression over my mind along with making me think that serving the community and people is the real bliss. As a community care extender, my role will be to act as a volunteer in any hospital. This will help me in learning the intricacies of people and service management. With the primary goal of becoming a nurse, the role of community care extender will help in having a profound idea over how things are managed in hospital and how patients are managed and cared. As an intern, I will be receiving training in patient care that will be further utilised in my professional career. Overall, it can be said that the role of clinical care extender will assist me in meeting my career goals along with offering me a chance to evaluate my skills and attributes in a clear and precise manner. The core value of an internship is to follow the goals and objectives of the organisation along with devoting oneself in a selfless manner. The prime objective is to take care of patients along with learning new things by being active and zealous. At the same time, it is important to be honest, transparent and ethical in approach while initiating and completing tasks and responsibilities. Being an intern, it is very much evident that one has to assist the organisation in accomplishing its goals and objectives. In hospitals, it is important to have a compassionate and ethical approach in order to serve people and their needs. If I get selected as an intern, I will be ethical and honest in my approach. In last few years, I have learnt that ethics, honesty and transparency show the character of an individual and speak on his behalf. I will carry forward with this mindset along with embracing the legacy and objectives of the organisation to empower myself as a human being.
Monday, November 18, 2019
NIKEs Cheap Labor - Case Study Example This paper illustrates that there are several allegations against Nike for its labor practices. Nike, as we know, is the largest shoe manufacturing company. In Indonesia, Nike pays a minimum wage of $2.50 a day to its workers although the daily livable wage in Indonesia is $4.00 to $4.50 a day. The case also reflects the poor living conditions of the workers employed in Nike. Other instances of suppression include settling labor issues through the military, compelling workers for overtime without pay, sexual harassment and molestation of female employees, and total negligence of the welfare of the workers. Nike was definitely at fault because its resources to control, prevent job injuries, tools for advocating health and safety of its workers is not very pertinent. Finally, high rates of occupational illness and poor compensation are a result of inequality in political power. The role of media is huge when it comes to raising awareness and preventing exploitation of people. They are the powerful effect on a countries growth and development. It should serve as agents for the modernization of the third world countries. Media here refers to mass media, print media and all other forms of media including the internet. They should increase their reach and provide all the news about the third world countries to the first world countries in the first place. They should also increase the third world control over communications asset which personnel from the first world countries are permitted to extract and process those into the news. They should also hold some control over world communication institutions like UN agencies. The Social responsibility system advocates press freedom. Its purposes are similar to libertarian goals of informing, entertaining, selling, serving as a check on government. Media acts as a bridge between the government and the citizens of that country. It should keep the citizens aware of the development that is going on in their country and wheth er it would profit them or led them towards destruction.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Principles of Maritime Administration and Policy I. Introduction Clearly stated in Article 94 UNCLOS 1982 that one of the duties of flag state is to take such measures for ships flying its flag as are necessary to ensure safety at sea, which required to conform to generally accepted international regulations (UNCLOS, 1982). Having consider that States should not only become party to the convention, but also fully implemented their obligations, IMO establish Resolution A.996(25) Code for the Implementation of Mandatory IMO Instruments. Based on this code, there are strategies that should be developed by the States in order to achieve objective of the code, which is enhancing global maritime safety and protection of marine environment (IMO, 2007). Indonesia through its maritime administration should establish system which develop this strategy to fulfill their duty as flag state. This paper try to compare four strategies mention in Resolution A.996(25) with system established in Indonesia in general; and specifically explore the consequence of the c ode for Indonesia in terms of casualty investigation. II. Strategy for enhancing maritime safety and protection of marine environment Based on Resolution A.996(25), there are 4 strategies should be developed by the States. First strategy, implementation and enforcement of IMO convention; Implementation of flag state responsibility cover many aspect, such as convention interpretation, education and manning, flag state inspection, certification issues,ÃâÃ authorization and monitoring RO, and casualty investigation. However, these implementation and enforcement are fully depends on ability and willingness of member parties. Contracting Governments enforce the provisions of IMO conventions as far as their own ships are concerned and also set the penalties for infringements, where these are applicable (IMO, 2009). Ratify a Convention and bring it into full and complete effect through internal law is not easy for contracting government. To establish effective maritime legislation, after set it up, it should be easy to change and keep updated with IMO change, set up IMO legislative tracking, attend IMO meeting and m aintain effective communication with other parts of government (Belcher, 2009). Survey and certification is one of the ways to enforce standard developed by administration. In some cases, countries which are lack of expertise and experience have found convenience in delegating their functions to Recognized Organizations (Villanueva, 2004). Many developed administrations also decided to delegate part of their function to RO, in order to effectively expand their capabilities on worldwide basis. RO such as classification society have believed as professional solution for global surveyor network and technical expertise (Schlott, 2009). However, some problems arise regarding statutory work delegation. For example, audit of Denmark shows the needs of more effective monitoring of statutory survey record held by RO (VIMSAS-Denmark, 2007). Therefore in term of authorization, Maritime Administration should fully refer to Resolution A.789(19) Ã¢â¬Å"Specifications on the survey and certification functions of recognized organizations acting on behalf ofÃâÃ administrat ionsÃ¢â¬ and Resolution A.739(18) Ã¢â¬Å"Guidelines for the authorization of organizations acting on behalf of the administrationÃ¢â¬ (Schlott, 2009). Second strategy, adherence to international recommendations; apart from Mandatory instrument such as Load Lines, SOLAS and COLREG, flag state should also refer to international recommendation such as IMO resolution or circular which contain guidelines or other non mandatory code. Thirdly is continuous review and verification of international obligation compliance effectiveness. One way of review is by evaluating port state control statistics. PSC usually published annual reports that contain statistics on the performance of flag States and RO. Casualty statistics also can give picture of compliance effectiveness. In addition, comprehensive measurement of flag State ability to enact and effectively enforce maritime legislation is through Voluntary IMO Member State Audit Scheme. The importance of VIMSAS in verification of flag State compliance is emphasized by IMO (Mansell, 2009). Purpose of VIMSAS is not to shame or point a finger at a state, but to assist them in fulfilling their duties and obligations which promotes flag State performance. The result of this audit is known only to the State concerned, auditors and IMO secretariat, and reports from audits are published as anonymous (Franson, 2009). Last strategy is achievement, maintenance and improvement of overall organizational performance and capability. Human resource development will influence organizational performance; and good quality system can assure achievement and maintenance of organization performance. Administration can apply ISO 90001 or other equivalent quality system. Furthermore, improvement can be done through introduce new public management principle. It is move away from administration to achievement of result, change from classic bureaucracy to flexibility and defines organizational and personal objectives through measurable performance indicator (SchrÃ ¶der, 2008). Although almost impossible to implement all of NPM strategies, many administration in developing countries are implementing selected aspects of NPM notably granting more autonomy to public sector organizations, emphasis on results, accountability for performance and results, introduce competition, contracting, and customer orientation (Singh ,2001). Multi-state cooperation for capacity-building is one example of new public management implementation to overcome the limitation of organization through international cooperation (Manuel, 2009). III. Flag state implementation in Indonesia Indonesia is a huge Archipelago country comprised of 17508 islands, with 5.8 million square kilometres total area of sea and 95181 km length of coast line (Indonesian Maritime Committee, 2008). This given condition generates high dependency on maritime transportation and also obstacle to develop high qualified and reliable maritime transportation system. Three main strategies in maritime transportation development of Indonesia for 2009 are improvement of national transportation service, improving safety and security of maritime transportation and improving quality of human resources (Ministry of Transportation, 2009). Indonesia also published long term development strategies 2005-2025 for maritime safety, inter alia, maintain traffic scheme, monitoring seaworthiness and vessel status regularly, assessment of technical aspect and operational of vessel, controlling implementation of planned maintenance systems, developing crew career, monitoring environmental protection and improving S AR operation (Ministry,2008a). Specific short term target are explained in roadmap of maritime transportation safety improvement for 2006-2009 plans which include facilities, law enforcement, regulation, restructure organization, human resource, institution revitalization and community socialization (Ministry,2008b). Specifically as a flag state, Indonesia is bound to the obligation of flag state duties as mention in UNCLOS. Based on Transportation Information Book 2007, Indonesia has 7,237 national fleets in 2007 (Ministry, 2008c). Compare to the world, Indonesia is in number 11 in merchant marine with 971 vessels in 2008 (CIA,2009). To maintain and assure that all vessels have fully complied with regulation is not easy task for Indonesia. As 4 strategies mentioned in Resolution A.996(25) which should be established, some are fulfilled and some are not yet accomplished. a. Implementation and enforcement Indonesia already ratify several conventions such as SOLAS 74 protocol 78, Load Line 66, Tonnage 69, COLREG 72, STCW 78, MARPOL 73/78 Annex I/II and some other convention such as CSC, STP, Facilitation and INMARSAT (IMO,2009a). Ratification processes are take time since it has to be legalizing through parliaments. However, although there are some conventions, protocol or annex not yet ratified, Indonesia always try to keep in track to recent important regulation development. For example, as mention in roadmap of maritime transportation safety improvement, Indonesia has continuous improvement in ISPS and ISM implementation (Ministry, 2008b). In terms of classification, Directorate General of Sea Transportation give authority to Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia regards hull construction, electrical and machinery. Other aspect such as radio communication and safety equipment are inspected by Directorate through their Marine Inspector (Rusdi,2009). This multiple classifications should not be a problem if every part of regulation is strictly implemented. However, often people argue that BKIs position is not helped by its close links with the Ministry of Transportation, where decisions are often described as politically-motivated (Indonesian Class, 2007). Indonesia also tries to improve law enforcement such as technical audit to passenger vessel and ro-ro ferry, sanction for careless harbourmaster and marine inspector, licence revocation for negligent operator and condition assessment survey for safety requirement in ro-ro ferry which older than 25 years. In 2007, there are 4 official and 1 operator were sanctioned (Ministry, 2008b). Unfortunately, in several cases, inadequate safety equipments are still founded. For example, in KM Levina accident case, it was proved that the sprinkle can not work. Ironically, for safety equipment certificate, the ship have complete certificate. There are possibilities that safety equipment not carefully inspected (Rusdi, 2009). As Gunther, chairman of interferry, comments that many problem are caused by poor operator administration (High waves, 2009). This problem should be cover by port clearing requirement; therefore, law enforcement should be much stricter. b. Adherence to international recommendations Overall, Indonesia has trying to implement and enforce mandatory instrument; however, Indonesia should more pay attention to international recommendation. Although ISPS are not cover in Resolution A.996(25), ISPS code including Part B which is not mandatory is one example of recommendation that already implemented in Indonesia.ÃâÃ Indonesia already established International Ship and Port Facilities Security since 1st July 2004 (Ministry, 2008a). c. Review and verification of the effectiveness Port state control data, accident statistics and audit are the ways to review and verify flag state implementation effectiveness.ÃâÃ Unfortunately, port state control statistic for Indonesian vessel not gives good news. In Tokyo MoU annual report 2008, Indonesia is in 6th place in highest detention report with 19.14% or 40 detentions. With 634 inspections from 2006 to 2008 there are 123 detentions which put Indonesia in black list.ÃâÃ However, Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia can prove that they have better performance, which in Tokyo MoU, BKI has medium performance level (Tokyo MoU, 2009). Number of vessel accident in Indonesia also relatively high. Figure 1 shows the statistics from 2003 to 2008. It tends to increase from 2003 to 2007 and the highest number occurs in 2007 with 145 accidents. However it shows good progress when in 2008, number of accident sharp decrease to 44 accidents. This probably prove that after second biggest ferry disaster in Indonesia, SenopatiÃâÃ Nusantara, happened at the end of 2006, government trying hard to improve vessel safety in Indonesia. Furthermore, Indonesia has not yet volunteered for VIMSAS. Apart of realizing that some obligation not yet fulfilled, one of the problems is probably cost which should be afforded for the audit. However this problem should not be as a reason to refrain from applying the audit. Integrated Technical Co-operation Programme (ITCP) can provide assistance to prepare audits and/or implement corrective measures in response to audit findings and, if necessary, funding part of the cost for the audit (Franson, 2009). Considering benefit of this audit, applying VIMSAS could be the starting point for Indonesia to find the right solution. d. Achievement, maintenance and improvement of overall organizational performance and capability In order to ensure achievement and maintenance of organizational performance, Indonesia realized urgency of improving human resource development. Since 2006, each year Indonesia trained approximately 600 people in various training such as marine inspector, hydrographic, Global Marine Distress Safety System, SAR, ISPS-Code, Port State Control Officer, Advance Fire Fighting, ISM Code and Radar Simulator Arpa Simulator. In terms of organization improvement, Directorate General of Sea transportation determined tasks based on competence based evaluation. Indonesia also planned to restructure and reform Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia to be more independent and professional (Ministry, 2008b). Although we can categorized Indonesian Maritime administration has traditional public administration style with its classic bureaucracy, Indonesia has implemented some element of new public management. Authorization of Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia for ISM audit also shown Maritime administration orientation in result, with realized their limited capability for doing too much task. Directorate has also published minimum standard of services which mention performance indicator (Directorate, 1999). Certainly, all deficiency should be overcome, one of the solution is by implementing the code in Resolution A.996(25). However, there are many possible consequences have to be faced by Indonesia in order to fully implement the code. One example of important parts is regarding casualty investigation. IV. Consequence of the code for casualty investigation in Indonesia As part of the strategy, casualty investigation is one of flag state responsibility that should implement.ÃâÃ Resolution A.996(25) point out that flag state should carried out investigation following a marine casualty or pollution incident. Three consequences that should considered regarding casualty investigations are provide qualified investigators, publish the result for certain cases, and report to IMO according to the guidelines (IMO,2007). Wherever the location of casualty or incident, flag State should be prepared to provide qualified investigators. Individual investigators should have working knowledge and practical experience in those subject areas pertaining to their normal duties. Additionally, in order to assist individual investigators performing duties outside their normal assignments, flag State should ensure ready access of various expertise such as expertise in navigation and Collision Regulations, causes of marine pollution, interviewing techniques, evidence gathering, and evaluation of the effects of the human element (IMO,2007). High qualified investigator can conduct good investigation which finds not only the direct causes but also the root causes to avoid the reoccurrence. In terms of investigator, Indonesia only has 6 individual investigators. As Karmoyono, head of maritime transportation sub committee NTSC said, to promptly deal with all accident happen in Indonesia at least 30 individual investigato rs is needed, with 1 investigator for each province (Yunita,2008). Addressing this problem, Indonesia can try to develop its capability through program offered in UNDP; as long as conform to UNDP global mandate and follow the process, Common Country Assessment, United Nations Development Assistance Framework and Common Country Programme Action Plan (Jopap,2009). Along with developing internal capability, Indonesia can also explore possibility to take advantage of multi state cooperation with get professional expert from other country. Moreover, the investigation result should be informed to every party involved as input for improvement.ÃâÃ According to Smith and Schmidt, Ã¢â¬Å"When investigating accident, success is measured by the degree to which the party efficiently receives the information it needs and is able to act in its own best interest based on that knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Smith Schmidt, 2005, p.210). It is fits to requirement of the code, which is to publish the result of investigation to the public, especially any accidents involving personal injury necessitating absence from duty of three days or more and any deaths resulting from occupational accidents and casualties to ships. In 2008, among 44 accidents, 4 accidents which considered as major accident were investigated by National Transport Safety Committee, and 40 were investigated by Directorate General of Sea Transportation (NTSC, 2009a). Among this 4 major accident only 2 of the report are published in NTSC website (NTSC, 2009b). Last consequence is requirement to report in accordance with MSC/Circ.953-MEPC/Circ.372, Reports on marine casualties and incidents, and revised harmonized reporting procedures which is reports required under SOLAS regulation I/21 and MARPOL 73/78 articles 8 and 12. V.Conclusion Strategies mentioned in Resolution A.996(25) has give comprehensive measure to implement IMO convention. Indonesia as flag state has developed short term and long term strategic plans which in line with some part of the code. Indonesia also conducted the strategy; however, there are still many deficiencies occurred, especially in enforcement, adherence to the international recommendation, and verification of effectiveness. Realizing the benefit of the code, it is every hope that all possible consequences which arise from implementing the code in Indonesia can be managed.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
What do you think of when you hear the word cholesterol? It's pretty common to think that it makes you gain weight, it is bad in large quantities, and it is generally unhealthy. But a recent experiment has shown that although it can be bad in some ways, it is good for you in other ways. One of the most important parts of your body is your central nervous system (CNS). It includes your spinal cord and your brain, and it is run by cells called neurons. These neurons, with the help of synapses, send electrical signals throughout the body. So what do neurons and synapses have to do with cholesterol? If you do not have cholesterol during certain parts of your life cycle, you actually do not develop many synapses. Even those that do form are destined to be inefficient at transmitting signals to the brain and body. Who cares if you have a lot of efficient synapses? An easy comparison is between the CNS and a computer. The brain thriving off of a lot of synapses, a computer running much better with more RAM. Your computer still works if it does not have a lot of RAM, and it will do what you ask it to; however, if it does have a lot of RAM, it will do what you ask more efficiently and faster. Likewise, if you do not have many synapses, your brain and CNS will still work at a much lower level. If you do have a lot of synapses, everything will work faster. Your brain will send signals to the rest of your body efficiently so you can react faster, think faster, etc. This leads us into the article that you should be able to understand completely by the end of this web page. Before this discovery was made, scientists had no idea that cholesterol was responsible for these events. Follow along with us to an explanation of the previous ... ...a viable solution. Now that you know that your brain is all you have, there are some considerations to be made. Do you really want to smoke marijuana when you consider that being high means killing off neurons? What about that kegger next weekend? That kills brain cells too. More specific than the ties to drug and alcohol abuse, this article talks about the gray areas of life. The human body is an amazing machine. It is extremely adaptive, and it requires a lot of fuel to run. Avoid entirely wiping out a common substance from your diet without doing the proper research. Who knows, perhaps cutting that food from your meal might put you in deeper trouble than you thought possible. References "CNS Synaptogenesis Promoted by Glia-Derived Cholesterol." Science Magazine. 9 Nov 2001: 1354-1357. 3 Nov 2003 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/294/5545/1354. Benefits of Cholesterol to Brain Development Essay -- Biology What do you think of when you hear the word cholesterol? It's pretty common to think that it makes you gain weight, it is bad in large quantities, and it is generally unhealthy. But a recent experiment has shown that although it can be bad in some ways, it is good for you in other ways. One of the most important parts of your body is your central nervous system (CNS). It includes your spinal cord and your brain, and it is run by cells called neurons. These neurons, with the help of synapses, send electrical signals throughout the body. So what do neurons and synapses have to do with cholesterol? If you do not have cholesterol during certain parts of your life cycle, you actually do not develop many synapses. Even those that do form are destined to be inefficient at transmitting signals to the brain and body. Who cares if you have a lot of efficient synapses? An easy comparison is between the CNS and a computer. The brain thriving off of a lot of synapses, a computer running much better with more RAM. Your computer still works if it does not have a lot of RAM, and it will do what you ask it to; however, if it does have a lot of RAM, it will do what you ask more efficiently and faster. Likewise, if you do not have many synapses, your brain and CNS will still work at a much lower level. If you do have a lot of synapses, everything will work faster. Your brain will send signals to the rest of your body efficiently so you can react faster, think faster, etc. This leads us into the article that you should be able to understand completely by the end of this web page. Before this discovery was made, scientists had no idea that cholesterol was responsible for these events. Follow along with us to an explanation of the previous ... ...a viable solution. Now that you know that your brain is all you have, there are some considerations to be made. Do you really want to smoke marijuana when you consider that being high means killing off neurons? What about that kegger next weekend? That kills brain cells too. More specific than the ties to drug and alcohol abuse, this article talks about the gray areas of life. The human body is an amazing machine. It is extremely adaptive, and it requires a lot of fuel to run. Avoid entirely wiping out a common substance from your diet without doing the proper research. Who knows, perhaps cutting that food from your meal might put you in deeper trouble than you thought possible. References "CNS Synaptogenesis Promoted by Glia-Derived Cholesterol." Science Magazine. 9 Nov 2001: 1354-1357. 3 Nov 2003 http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/294/5545/1354.